References

Articles

Chen, C. L. (2007). Is There a Right Way to Discipline a Child? Journal Of Contemporary Legal Issues, 16(1), 105-110.

McNiel, M., Labbok, M., & Abrahams, S. (2010). What are the risks associated with formula feeding? A re-analysis and review. Birth: Issues In Perinatal Care, 37(1), 50-58. doi:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2009.00378.x

Videos

Discipline vs. Punishment for Children. (2008, April 10). [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zrl7nJvCDng&feature=player_embedded

Difference in nutrition of breast-feeding versus formula? (2009, November 23). [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n1f8rVHNEA8&feature=related

Quotes

Brault, R. (n.d.).“The trouble with learning to parent on the job is that your child is the teacher.” Retrieved from http://www.quotegarden.com/parents.html

Greenspan, S. (n.d.). “Good discipline is more than just punishing or laying down the law. It is liking children and letting them see that they are liked. It is caring enough about them to provide good, clear rules for their protection.”  Retrieved from http://www.notable-quotes.com/d/discipline_quotes.html

 Pictures

 Image source: http://www.dshs.wa.gov/ca/fosterparents/training/discpun/dp04.htm

 Image source: http://img.ehowcdn.com/article-new/ehow/images/a08/at/3d/negative-effects-corporal-punishment-800×800.jpg

Image source: http://www.health-res.com/EX/08-04-16/breastfeeding_vs_botlefeeding_pm-thumb-270×270.jpg

Image source: http://www.mothernurtureky.com/blog/wp content/uploads/2010/08/BreastfeedingRocks1.jpg

Image source: http://xtraordinaireblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/pregnant.png

Image source: http://www.moappp.org/images/slideshow_firstframe.png

Image source: http://prideinutah.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/gay-parents.jpg

Poem

Coker, L. (n.d.). “You Can Breastfeed Anywhere.” Retrieved from: http://www.breastfeeding.com/lighter_side/lighter_side_suess.html

 Other – Two Internet sites

Morrisey, B. (2000-2012). The Effects of Punishment on Children. Retrieved from http://www.kidsdevelopment.co.uk/EffectsOfPunishmentOnChildren.html

McGraw, P. C. (2012). Parenting: Age-Appropriate Discipline Techniques. Retrieved from http://www.drphil.com/articles/article/249

Washington State Department of Social and Health Services. (n.d.). How discipline works. Retrieved from http://www.dshs.wa.gov/ca/fosterparents/training/discpun/dp04.htm

Advameg Inc. (2008). Teenage Mothers in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.faqs.org/childhood/So-Th/Teenage-Mothers-in-the-United-States.html

Breastfeeding vs Formula feeding. (1995-2012). Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/feeding/breast_bottle_feeding.html

Breastfeeding. Why breastfeeding is so important. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/why-breastfeeding-is-important/

Emerging issues regarding parenting

Adolescent Pregnancy

Image source: http://xtraordinaireblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/pregnant.png

One emerging issue in the social scientific study of parenting today is adolescent pregnancy.  Although the birth rates of adolescents in the United States have progressively decreased, today many adolescents become pregnant. According to Advameg Inc. (2008), “In the United States, despite the decrease in the number of babies born to teenagers, the rate still continues to be more than four times that of many industrialized nations ” (para. 6).  This means that parents, guardians, and educators must take a more active role in educating girls about sex and preventing pregnancy.  Girls should also be educated about what happens if they do get pregnant, especially the challenges they will face in the short-term and long-term.  In the short-term they would have to make life changes to accommodate their new role as a parent.  Many adolescent girls who get pregnant usually never finish high school, much less attend college.  The lower level of education will affect them in the long-term because it will not allow them to get a proper job and their career options would be more limited.  These adolescent girls and their children are more likely to end living in poverty.  It is imperative to break up the cycle of adolescent pregnancy and with the support of parents and educators; adolescent pregnancies can be prevented.

Image source: http://www.moappp.org/images/slideshow_firstframe.png

Same Sex Parenting

Another emerging issue in the social scientific study of parenting is same sex parenting.  This is a very hot topic in the United States.  This parenting concept has been increasing; more families are headed by openly gay and lesbian parents.   Although same sex parenting is occurring more frequently, there are many challenges that these families face.  One of the biggest challenges is the lack of support and acceptance from their families and society. Regardless of the family structure, becoming a parent is a blessing that is followed by hard work and dedication.  Parents need to give unconditional love and make ultimate sacrifices to ensure their children are successful in society.

Image source: http://prideinutah.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/gay-parents.jpg

Chapter 5: Breast-Feeding in Comparison to Bottle-Feeding

One of the first decisions mothers need to make is whether they will breast-feed or bottle-feed. I chose the topic of breast-feeding in comparison to bottle-feeding discussed in chapter five because I have many wonderful things to say about breastfeeding and I wanted to share some helpful information that I found.  I was able to breastfeed my daughter until she was 15 months.  It was not an easy task, but I did it!

The benefits of breastfeeding are too numerous to list, but, to mention a few of my favorite: there is a strong bond between mommy-baby developed with nursing, you do not have to wait for a bottle to warm up or have bottles to clean, and diapers are not as smelly as bottle-fed.  The feeling of knowing that your baby is growing from what your body is producing is too wonderful for words!

Link to scholarly article that best represents the concept of Breast-Feeding in Comparison to Bottle-Feeding

Here is a link to an article that discusses the risks associated with formula feeding versus breastfeeding.  I chose this article because it best illustrates the topics I chose about breast-feeding in comparison to bottle feeding.

What are the Risks Associated with Formula Feeding? A Re-Analysis and Review

Link to Scholarly Article

Image source:  http://www.health-res.com/EX/08-04-16/breastfeeding_vs_botlefeeding_pm-thumb-270×270.jpg

Link to video clip that explains Breast-feeding in comparison to Bottle-feeding

Here is a link of video clip that best describes the main differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding

Two Internet sites

This article gives a great general idea of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.   The article summarizes the benefits of breast-feeding and the challenges that come with breast-feeding.  It also explains formula feeding and its challenges.

http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/feeding/breast_bottle_feeding.html

This article gives information about all the benefits of breastfeeding.  It also provides information about why it is important to breastfeed.  It gives details of how it will benefit or affect a baby.  To summarize, there is no right or wrong choice when it comes to breast-feeding or bottle feeding.  Mothers choose what works best for them and their baby.

http://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/why-breastfeeding-is-important/

Poem : You Can Breastfeed Anywhere

These lines, by Laurie Coker (n.d.), express the convenience of breastfeeding:

You may breastfeed in a store,
on the floor,
in a roar.
You may breastfeed in a jam,
eating fried green eggs and ham.
You may breastfeed on the stair.
You may breastfeed anywhere!

Your baby can latch on in a swing,
on the wing,
in a ring.
He can latch on in a car,
where you are,
at the barre.
She can latch on in a storm,
on the farm:
that’s her charm.
She can latch on in a train,
on a plane,
without pain.
They can latch on to a rhyme.
They can latch on any time.

You can nurse Jane or Joe.
You can nurse Clyde or Moe.
you can nurse Betty or Sallie.
you can nurse at a political rally.
You can nurse anytime, anywhere.
You can nurse clothed or bare.
You can nurse unshaved of hair.
You can nurse Tim, Tony or Tom.
Who can nurse? Any mom!

 

Image source:  http://www.mothernurtureky.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/BreastfeedingRocks1.jpg

Chapter 4: The Problems Associated with Using Punishment

In this class, I found that there is much controversy over the matter of whether or not to use punishment to discipline children.  I believe I use spanking as a form of punishment mostly because that was how I was raised.  However, there are many researches that show that there are problems associated with using punishment to discipline children.  Some of the long-term consequences of using punishment are: increased aggressiveness, low self-esteem, delinquency, and antisocial behavior.  Punishment is a very common practice that works in short-term, but has many long-term disadvantages. There are many age-appropriate disciplining techniques that parents can use as an alternative to punishment.

According to the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services (n.d.), the following are effective ways to discipline children:

 Effective Discipline:

  • Teaches your children what to do, not just what not to do
  • Teaches your children how to problem-solve to get their needs met
  • Teaches your children how to interact appropriately with adults and others
  • Promotes growth in the five areas of development (physical, intellectual, social, emotional and moral)
  • Enhances self concept
  • Helps your children internalize all of the above and allows them to become self disciplined

Image source: http://www.dshs.wa.gov/ca/fosterparents/training/discpun/dp04.htm

Link to scholarly article that best represents the concept of the problems associated with using punishment

I chose this article because it best illustrates the topics of using punishment.  It is an overview of the negative effects of corporal punishment.  The negative effects of corporal punishment include; increased aggressiveness, low self-esteem, delinquency, and antisocial behavior.  It also has information about current U.S. laws regarding the use of corporal punishment.

Is There a Right Way to Discipline a Child?

Link to Scholarly Article

 Image source: http://img.ehowcdn.com/article-new/ehow/images/a08/at/3d/negative-effects-corporal-punishment-800×800.jpg

Link to video clip that explains the problems associated with using punishment

Here is a link of video clips that helps us understand the behaviors in children and how to discipline not punish them.

Two Internet sites

This article summarizes the effects of punishment on children.  Disciplining children is almost always preferable than using punishment because of then negative outcomes that punishment bring to children.

http://www.kidsdevelopment.co.uk/EffectsOfPunishmentOnChildren.html

This article in Dr. Phil’s parenting blog best describes how to use age-appropriate discipline techniques.  It is broken down from birth to 18 months, 18 months to 3 years, 4years to 12 years, and 13 years to 16 years.  It explains how effective and ineffective discipline works.

 http://www.drphil.com/articles/article/249

Quote

Stanley Greenspan (n.d.) spoke of punishment: “Good discipline is more than just punishing or laying down the law. It is liking children and letting them see that they are liked. It is caring enough about them to provide good, clear rules for their protection.”